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                > 高中英语 > 高中英语教材 > 全新高中英语语法专练 >  第60课

                高中语法专练:viii. 分词的时态和语态形式

                所属教程:全新高中英语语法专练

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                2020年07月12日

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                viii. 分词的时态和语态形式

                1. 分词的时态:反映出分词动作与全句谓语动词的动作之间的先后关系

                1)一般式:分词表示的动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生(几乎同时)或表示正在发生。两个动作同时发生时,也可用“when/while +分词结构”。

                Arriving at the station , he found the train. (几乎同时)

                到了火车站他就找到了火车。

                The students sitting in this classroom are having English contest. (同时)

                坐在教室里的学生正在进行英语竞赛。

                The man planting trees in front of the building is our class teacher. (进行)

                在楼前面植树的那个人是我们的班主任。

                Don't talk while eating .

                吃饭的时候不要讲话。

                When leaving , she waved to everyone of us.

                离开的时候,她向我们大家挥手致意。

                2)完成式:分词所表示的动作发生在句中谓语所表示的♀动作之前。作定语时直接用过去分词,表示动作已完成,并具有被动含义。

                Not having tried his best , he failed in the exam.

                因为没有尽力而为,他考试失败了。

                The boy saved by a soldier came to himself soon.

                被一位战士救出的那个男孩不久就苏醒了。

                Having been beaten seriously, the enemy ran away in all directions.

                被痛打之后,敌人四处逃窜。

                2. 分词的语态:如果分词的逻辑主语是动作的承受者,就要用被动式。

                1)一般被动式表示正在进行的被动动作。

                The questions being discussed at the meeting are of great importance.

                会议上正在被讨论的问题很重要。

                Being asked to give a performance , she couldn't refuse it.

                当被请求进行表演的时候,她不好意思拒绝。

                In those days, they often went to the bank to watch the ship being loaded and unloaded .

                在那些日子,他们经常去河岸观看船只装卸。

                2)完成被动式强调分词表示的被动动作先于谓语动词所表示的动作发生。

                Having been warned about typhoon , the fishermen sailed for the nearest harbor.

                被警告有台风之后渔民们向最近的港口驶去。

                Not having been invited to the ball , she felt very angry.

                由于没有被邀请参加舞会,她感到很生气。

                Having been given such a good chance , how could he let it slip away?

                给了如此好的一个机会,他怎么能让它溜掉呢?

                The decision having been made , the next problem was how to make a good plan.

                决定已经做出了,下一个问题是如何制定一个好计划。

                3. 分词的独立◆结构——垂悬分词:当分词的逻辑主语不是主句的主语,而且在句中垂悬无依时,就是所谓的垂悬分词。这些分词已经成为固定的形式,使用时不必考虑其︾逻辑主语。其结构经常用来作插入语, 常见的有:generally speaking, frankly speaking, talking of, speaking of, strictly speaking, judging from/by, taking everything into consideration等

                Judging from his face , he must be ill.

                从他的脸色判断,他一定生病了。

                Generally speaking , it doesn't snow in winter in Shanghai.

                一般说来,上海冬天不会下雪。

                Judging from his accent , he came from America.

                从他的口音判断,他来自美国。

                Taking everything into consideration , this article was good.

                若把一切都考虑在内,这篇文章不错的。

                专项练习

                1. _______ by the police, the kidnappers had nothing to do but _______ up.

                A. Surrounding; to give

                B. Having surrounded; give

                C. Surrounded; to give

                D. Surrounded; give

                2. Never _______ on a plane before, the old woman felt very _______ and sick.

                A. be; surprised

                B. to be; surprising

                C. being; surprising

                D. having been; surprised

                3. _______ to himself, he found himself _______ to a big tree with no one nearby.

                A. Came; to be tied

                B. Having come; be tied

                C. Coming; tied

                D. To come; trying

                4. _______ in thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.

                A. Losing

                B. Having lost

                C. Lost

                D. To see

                5. No computer so far ever _______ can have the same ability as human brains.

                A. be built

                B. having built

                C. being built

                D. built

                6. _______ , the leaves are beginning _______.

                A. Autumn comes; to fall

                B. Autumn coming; to fall

                C. As autumn coming; falling

                D. Autumn to come; falling

                7. Stop walking and look around when _______ the street.

                A. cross

                B. across

                C. crossed

                D. crossing

                8. The man rushed into the house, his face _______ under his cap.

                A. hiding

                B. having hidden

                C. hidden

                D. to hide

                9. _______ to complete the work on time, they set out _______.

                A. Determined; to work

                B. Determining; to be working

                C. To be determined; working

                D. Having determined; to working

                10. It rained continuously for a few days, completely _______ our holidays.

                A. ruined

                B. to ruin

                C. ruining

                D. having been ruined

                答案速查 1-5 DDCCD 6—10 BDCAC


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